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Infectious Diseases

  • Abnormal droppings are a non-specific sign of illness in birds. Causes may range from a dietary intake of excess fruits to bacterial or viral intestinal infections and heavy metal toxicity. Any changes in the color or consistency of your bird's droppings should be addressed by your avian veterinarian.

  • Anthrax is a bacterial infection that rarely affects cats. It is not a new infection but has been revisited due to concerns about bioterrorism. Infection in cats usually occurs through ingestion of infected carcasses, causing clinical signs such as vomiting, diarrhea, and swelling of the face and neck. Treatment is highly effective in the early stages of infection.

  • Anthrax is a bacterial infection that can affect dogs if exposed to large amounts of bacterial-produced spores such as by terrorist attack or ingesting large quantities from infected meat. The organism that causes anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, produces spores that are resistant to typical disinfection methods and heat. These spores can last up to 40 years in the environment. Anthrax is usually spread through inhalation or ingestion of spores from infected meat, although cutaneous exposure can occur. Symptoms depend on the type of exposure and can include: black skin pustules, pneumonia, acute gastroenteritis with hemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhea, oral ulcerations, fever, weight loss, swelling of the neck, face and head and ultimately sepsis and death if not treated. Treatment requires antibiotics and can be highly effective in early stages. There currently is no canine vaccine.

  • Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are bacterial infections that are minimally or no longer responsive to commonly used antibiotics. Although these bacterial infections occur naturally, the frequent and/or inappropriate use of antibiotics accelerates the process. Cats with certain medical conditions may also be predisposed.

  • Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are bacterial infections that are minimally or no longer responsive to commonly used antibiotics. Although these bacterial infections occur naturally, the frequent and/or inappropriate use of antibiotics accelerates the process. Dogs with certain medical conditions may also be predisposed.

  • Antibodies are specialized proteins, also called immunoglobulins that are primarily found in the bloodstream. They are produced by specialized white blood cells called plasma cells, a form of lymphocyte.

  • Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that commonly causes respiratory disease in pet birds. It can cause both upper (nose, sinuses, eye, and trachea) and lower (lungs and air sacs – a specialized part of the respiratory tract that birds have) respiratory problems or more broadly distributed systemic infections. Aspergillus is normally an environmental contaminant and is not contagious from bird to bird.

  • This handout discusses aspergillosis in cats, an infection, growth, or allergic response caused by the Aspergillus fungus. If your cat becomes infected, it can be confined to the nasal passages (nasal aspergillosis), or it can spread throughout the body (systemic aspergillosis). The clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of both conditions are outlined.

  • This handout discusses aspergillosis in dogs, an infection, growth, or allergic response caused by the Aspergillus fungus. If your dog becomes infected, it can be confined to the nasal passages (nasal aspergillosis), or it can spread throughout the body (systemic aspergillosis). The clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of both conditions are outlined.

  • Atovaquone is given by mouth and is used off-label to treat protozoal infections. Give as directed. Side effects are uncommon but may include stomach upset or skin rash. Do not use in pets that are pregnant. If a negative reaction occurs, contact your veterinarian as soon as possible.

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